To ensure you continue to receive NOVA communications in a timely manner and also directly into your inbox,
please add EMAILADDRESS to your safe senders list or address book within your email client.

 
If you have trouble displaying this email, view it online.


Good afternoon!

It’s back-to-school season, and, for the first time, some parents will discover that their children are left-handed. 

Lefties are in the minority. | Photo credit: Alejandro Escamilla / Wikimedia Commons (CC0 1.0)

Doesn’t sound like a big deal, right? That’s probably because times have changed. 

Until the second half of the 20th century, it wasn’t uncommon to hear about parents and teachers coaxing lefties into using their right hand for daily tasks including writing, eating, and teeth-brushing. In most parts of the world, that’s no longer a standard practice—but certain myths about left-handedness persist. The truth is that left-handedness is much more than a trivial paw preference: It may be a useful lens through which to examine brain development. 


Leonardo da Vinci allegedly wrote backwards in order to avoid one of the perils of being a leftie: ink smudges. | Photo credit: Public Domain

Patricia Cowell, a professor of cognitive neuroscience at the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom, stresses that though left-handedness is referred to as “atypical” from time to time, there’s no need for concern.

“It’s lower prevalence. It’s not an anomaly; it’s not anything negative as such. It’s just different from the majority,” Cowell said. “I think the thing that's really important is that it is a very constant biological variation within normal development.”

Cowell studies handedness and brain lateralization: how different abilities like language or visual processing are organized within the brain. “If someone is left-handed, their brain organization is going to be different than someone [who] is right-handed,” Cowell said.

Before the era of the laptop-filled lecture hall, Cowell would sit at the front of the room and count the number of lefties in her classes while students completed five-minute thought experiments. Although the small sample size caused some variation from class to class, around 1 in 10 students were left-handed. This distribution is present in the general population as well—it is thought that around 10% of people around the world are left-handed. “It’s pretty stable,” Cowell said. “You need a fairly big group of people to get a consistent number, but I think that you can always find a few in a big group.” 

And there’s some evidence that the distribution of handedness has lasted for thousands of years, with right-handers in the strong majority and left-handers comprising a mere fraction. To study examples of handedness in history, French researchers examined Western European cave artwork dating back 10,000 to 30,000 years. Ancient artists would hold their non-dominant hands against a rock wall and use their dominant hand to blow colored dust onto it using a blowing tube, creating a negative image of their hand on the rock. The distributions of handedness found in cave art is consistent with what we see today. 

Other species have demonstrated handedness, as well. Roel Willems is a senior researcher at the Centre for Language Studies and the Donders Institute for Brain Cognition and Behaviour in Nijmegen in the Netherlands. 

“Other animals also tend to have a handedness preference,” Willems said. “[But] there is no other species [other than humans] that seems at the population level to be so strongly biased.” 

So far, research hasn’t revealed why the distribution of handedness has stood the test of time. It’s all “one big mystery,” according to Willems.  

But that could change. Scientists like Willems and Cowell are working to understand lefties’ unique brain structure—and what that could potentially tell us about brain organization and our evolution as a species.

Handedness is sometimes obvious, and it’s closely tied to our ability to perform complex tasks every day. But to truly study handedness, researchers have to look to the brain. 

For example, development across the brain’s motor cortex—the part of the brain responsible for voluntary movement—varies in relation to handedness. To study the motor cortex, researchers often look at how much oxygen is being consumed in parts of the brain during tasks via fMRI, or through a different technique that assesses connections within the nervous system called transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS). Using these techniques, researchers have identified connections between cortex development and handedness. 

“The left part of the motor cortex is more developed in right-handers than the right part of their motor cortex,” Willems said. “This imbalance we also find in left-handers. So, in left-handers, the right part of the motor cortex is better developed. But, the imbalance is much less strong.” 

If motor cortex development differs based on handedness, then what would happen if a person suddenly lost the ability to use his or her dominant hand? In that case, it turns out lefties might have an advantage.

“A typical phenomenon that you see with left-handers is that they are much more capable of doing stuff with their non-preferred hands,” William said. “When you break [the dominant] arm, you have to brush your teeth with your non-preferred hand. I don’t know if you’ve ever tried it, but that’s painful. Left handers have the advantage—if they break their left arm, it’s less painful if they have to [brush] with their right arm than for right-handers [brushing with their left arm].” 

Beyond movement, other brain functions like the ability to recognize faces are also tied to handedness and brain organization. While it was thought that face recognition was strongly right-lateralized, Willems said, his research has shown that it’s also less strongly lateralized in lefties.

And some abilities, like language, might have lateralization that can’t always be predicted using handedness. For serious surgeries like tumor removal, “a neurosurgeon will always test the language lateralization  before he starts to operate because you cannot simply assume that that lateralization is left or right,” Willems said. But in emergency situations where cortical mapping and fMRI aren't available, "handedness might clue [surgeons] into a patient's brain hemisphere dominance," Abdul-Kareem Ahmed, a neurosurgery resident at the University of Maryland, said. 

Historically, some researchers avoided left-handed subjects in neuroscience and psychology studies because the lefties could complicate the results. They’d prefer to have a homogeneous set of right-handers instead. (“It’s almost a mundane reason, but that is why,” Willems said.) One study on left-handers from 1988 contributed to the myth that left-handers have a lower life expectancy than right-handers. 

“That is probably not true,” Willems says. “The good news is that this has gotten a lot of attention, and in the end, it was very likely that it was based on a statistical error.” 

More reputable research began in the late 20th century, and continues today. In addition to examining the connections in the brain to handedness, researchers are now turning to genetics to demystify the origins of handedness in the first place. 

“Some people seem to be born left-handed, so there is a genetic component,” Willems said. However, he notes that the research on how exactly that works is in progress. Cowell describes the development of handedness as a sort of positive feedback loop: “Presumably, there is going to be some environmental influence early on. It could be prenatal, it could be early postnatal, but once the person is in a position where they’re developing along a trajectory where they have the capacity to become a left-hander, then by virtue of being left-handed, that is in itself an influence on the brain.” 

Further, if someone is naturally left-handed but forced to use their right hand, then their brain might reflect experience-dependent changes. Although it differs enormously by geographic region, there have been studies in which left-handed subjects were forced to use their right hands. Their resulting brain scans showed something striking. “In terms of lateralization of the motor functions, they are sort of half in between the right and left halves,” Willems said. In other words, their motor cortex development imbalances were in between those of left and right-handers. 

With the advent of rapid and affordable genome sequencing, researchers may get closer to understanding the genetics and origins of handedness and craft a better understanding of lateralization—all with the help of lefties. By including left-handers in studies with right-handers, genetic differences between the two could be more apparent. “Otherwise, you’re looking at a system which has very minute variations, and it’s hard to find genes that correlate with those variations because they are simply too small,” Willems said. 

Now, lefty brains are changing the ways scientists think about brain organization. Previous understandings of brain organization based on right-handers only may have set up the illusion that evolution led to a one-size-fits approach to wire the brain.

“However, if by-and-large 10% of people do it slightly differently, that tells you that the brain is perhaps more plastic in how it can be wired,” Willems said.

—Fatima Husain (This article was written and edited by lefties.)

***
WHAT'S ON YOUR MIND

In response to a repost on Facebook of a 2016 article about astrochronology (cool word, right?), Damien Smith wrote:


You're likely correct, Damien. Thanks for your comment! If you liked this piece, you might appreciate a more recent one about the loss of U.S. urban forests. 

WHAT'S ON OUR MIND

Astrophysicist Jocelyn Bell Burnell has no shortage of accolades—with perhaps the exception of being famously left out of the 1974 Physics Nobel Prize for the discovery of pulsars. But now, she can add yet another prestigious award to her résumé: The Special Breakthrough Physics Prize in Fundamental Physics, which is accompanied by a $3 million prize. Bell Burnell’s scientific achievements are an inspiration to everyone—but especially women.
 
Burnell Bell was born in Northern Ireland in 1943. By the time she was old enough to attend the local school, she wasn’t allowed in any science classes. No girls were. Instead, they were forced to take classes like cookery and needlework. Burnell Bell’s parents (and two other sets of parents) called the school’s headmaster to complain. Soon after, Burnell Bell and two other girls were the only women in the science class.

While this took place more than 60 years ago, this picture is not too dissimilar to some of my college physics classes. In classrooms with more than 300 students, there would only be about 10 women. Sometimes even less. And I was consistently the only Latina. It’s only in hindsight that I realize I must’ve stood out.
 
A young Jocelyn Bell (Burnell) in 1967 | Photo credit: Roger W. Haworth / Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The number of women in college has been steadily increasing. The same thing goes for women in some science fields. But in physics, the population of students remains overwhelmingly male. If we are to have more Jocelyn Bell Burnells in the world, we need to encourage more women, including ethnic minority women, to pursue degrees in the physical sciences. 
 
Which is why I think it’s incredibly amazing that Bell Burnell is using her prize money to set up a special scholarship to help women, under-represented ethnic minorities, and refugees become physics researchers. She really is an inspiration.
 
—Ana Aceves, NOVA digital production assistant

Have a question for NOVA? Want to see us cover something in the news? Let us know—tweet at @novapbs, use the hashtag #NOVALens, send us a direct message, or email us at nova_lens@wgbh.org. We might give you a shout-out in next week's newsletter.

 ***

POSTSCRIPT

Ever wondered what's going on in your brain and your body while you're viewing art?

The Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, MA launched a neuroscience project last year to examine just that, and a few weeks ago I was able to participate in a small aspect of it. My friend, Tedi Asher, is the neuroscientist-in-residence at the museum; she's leading the charge in the team's quest to find out how the brain engages with beauty and imagery.


Sally Mann's “Easter Dress,” 1986

Without spoiling anything about the experiment I participated in, I will say that it was really cool to get strapped with biometric sensors and walk around an incredibly poignant Sally Mann exhibit (she's the photographer who took the picture above) wearing camera-equipped glasses. As schools move fro STEM to STEAM (the additional "A" stands for the arts), it's great to see museums and institutions acknowledging the interconnectedness of science and art. 

I was especially intrigued by the choice of exhibit for this experiment—if you choose to go try it out, you'll see why. The study is being conducted Tuesdays through Fridays until September 21. Participants can't wear eyeglasses (contacts are fine), must be 18+, and must NOT have visited the Sally Mann exhibition previously. You can email the Peabody Essex Museum at social@pem.org or neuroscience@pem.org to learn more and sign up.

By the way, if you got the link to this newsletter elsewhere, subscribe here (select "NOVA Newsletters").

See you next week, 

Allison and the NOVA team



National corporate funding for NOVA is provided by Draper. Major funding for NOVA is provided by the David H. Koch Fund for Science, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and public television viewers.
You are receiving this e-mail because you subscribed to the NOVA Lens Newsletter. 
 If you wish to unsubscribe from similar email communications, 
click here
If you wish to unsubscribe from all email, 
click here. Please do not reply to this email.
 If you have feedback, please visit 
www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/feedback/.